There are many considerations, some of which are secret or proprietary to those that figured them out.
A major issue is how to connect the electronic parts and hold them in place. Individual transistor, resistor, and even ICs are small and light and fully encapsulated in epoxy or some other material. Keeping these parts in place and properly connected to each other is a tough problem.
I don't have any good direct answers, but I do remember reading about how the first proximity fuses for anti-aircraft shells were developed during WWII. They made it work back then with vacuum tubes, so it should be possible today with smaller and lighter semiconductors. If I remember right, one of the breakthroughs was silver in the solder.
Go read up on the history of proximity fuses in WWII. It's a interesting bit of history by itself, and you should be able to find pointers to how the electronics was made to survive, which might lead to pointers to more modern research.
Of course one has to wonder why someone would be asking this here. If you're professionally designing electronics for artillery shells, you should have access to the classified research. If you don't have access to this information, then it's hard to see a legitimate reason you should be privy to the information. I wouldn't tell you more even if I did know it.