More specifically, I'd like to know if unmanned rockets need to be specially designed to withstand the heat generated from air friction and shock waves during launch. I found the diagram below on the NASA website which shows some fairly high stagnation temperatures, but the problem is that I don't know how fast a typical rocket travels on its way to, say, low earth orbit. I also don't know what the velocity profile looks like, i.e. Mach number vs. altitude.
Most of the information I've found only talks about orbital velocity and reentry temperatures, neither of which is very useful.