Are all autonomous vehicles (self driving cars) electric vehicles (EV) or some are also internal combustion engines (ICE)?

I was having a discussion with my friend and he was insisting that all artificial intelligence based cars are EV but I don't agree with him as I think artificial intelligence (self driving) is being applied to the navigation aspects of the car, not to other aspects of the vehicle like the propulsion system that can be EV or ICE.

  • $\begingroup$ Duplicate closed on EE.SE. electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/697904/… $\endgroup$
    – Transistor
    Commented Jan 17 at 12:00
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ You are confusing AI with self driving cars, and since the levels of driver assistance can be misidentified as self driving the answer appears to be yes, my car has lane keeping and automatic cruise control and uses dinosaur juice. $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 17 at 21:33
  • $\begingroup$ Entropy does not favor "all of" anything. If you simply need to find one vehicle to prove your "friend" wrong, search your terms, simply look at the DARPA Grand Challenge, or better yet - make one :) $\endgroup$
    – Abel
    Commented Jan 18 at 11:21
  • $\begingroup$ @Transistor: The weblink in your comment is faulty. $\endgroup$
    – Fred
    Commented Jan 19 at 7:02

1 Answer 1


Vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE) have been used and are being used in autonomous vehicles.

One of the stated aims for using autonomous vehicles from this site is to reduce CO2 emissions.

If you look at pictures of test vehicles used companies developing autonomous vehicles for use in urban and city environments you'll see vehicles having radiator grills.

The mining company Rio Tinto has a fleet of autonomous haulage trucks in at least one iron ore mine in Western Australia. The trucks are all diesel powered. It has also expanded the fleet to include water trucks. All the trucks are controlled remotely from Perth, in excess of 2000 km away.

Rio Tinto is also working with Scania to develop smaller ICE haulage trucks for use as autonomous vehicles.

  • $\begingroup$ Do you assume radiator grills guarantee an ice? Many electric motors and battery power control units need cooling as well... $\endgroup$
    – Solar Mike
    Commented Jan 19 at 8:22

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