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My apologies if this isn't the right Stack to ask about dielectric elastomers, but I couldn't find any other search result on other stacks about dielectric elastomers, except here.


So, no matter how much I search, there isn't any kind of artificial muscle that even reaches the efficiency of electric motors (above 90%).

Even carbon nanotubes and graphene soft actuators can't even reach 2% of efficiency (as far the articles I read that actually tell its efficiency).

I just stumbled upon Dielectric Elastomers, which are considered an promising option, but I can't find an elastomer that can even reach such efficiencies. The most efficient that I heard about was an specific type of Dielectric Elastomer that the "ChatGPT" of Quora suggested that it has 42% of efficiency: "A processable, high-performance dielectric elastomer and multilayering process".


In anyway, I found this helical Dielectric Elastomer, which is basically a spiral tape with the positive side on the top part and the negative side on the bottom part, since it is an spiral, the top half will always be attracted to the bottom half: "Force optimization and numerical validation of helical dielectric elastomer actuator".

Illustration showing the dielectric elastomer


By replacing the conductive coating for actual copper wiring, how much efficient would this system be? Or it would only work with copper wiring if thes spirals where covered into small copper coils like electromagnets?

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Copper works hardens, then fractures. Don’t think this will last long.

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