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This question is related to the recently damaged Nord Stream, but this is not a political question, poorly technical. I would like to ask if there are any known ways to restore the undersea pipeline if some short section received such a damage that likely needs full replacement.

Have ever been other comparable pipelines fixed or abandoned after somewhat comparable damage?

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With great cost and difficulty. As answered by @Solar Mike ; lifting to the surface and welding is best. Under water welding can be done but is more often a patch of some type. Very likely a modern pipeline is high strength ( such as 80,000 psi yield) and does not like to be welded with much hydrogen ( that is underwater) . That is why a low strength patch steel is used . Also the section to be welded can be put in a hyperbaric chamber and welded dry ; $$$$). But I am obsolete and the Patton Institute in Russia used to be the main researcher of underwater welding and may have improvements. The concrete weighting often used on gas pipelines does add much to the problems.

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  • $\begingroup$ I was taught mig welding by a welder that did a lot of work on the North Sea oil rigs... He said the conditions in the paper mill was a walk in the park :) $\endgroup$
    – Solar Mike
    Oct 5, 2022 at 8:50
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Two basic ways:

  1. lift out of the water, repair and relay

  2. send down divers who can weld - they are very expensive, welding certs, diving ratings and usually listed by Lloyds...

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  • $\begingroup$ The damaged segment is attached to the rest of the pipeline running hundreds of km and seems covered by concrete. How can you lift it and can you weld it? $\endgroup$
    – h22
    Oct 4, 2022 at 11:48
  • $\begingroup$ @h22 did you read 2? $\endgroup$
    – Solar Mike
    Oct 4, 2022 at 11:54

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