This is a really odd and specific question, and I'm not sure this is even where to ask. A few weeks ago I thought about making a clock based on water flowing from an orifice. The obvious issue is that the flow rate would vary significantly based on environmental conditions around the clock. Does anyone know of a liquid or maybe a powder that will flow more consistently from a container into another across normal temperature and pressure shifts?

The obvious first guess would be sand like in an hourglass, but I was hoping someone knew of a better solution because the flow rate of sand is finicky in other more unpredictable ways.

I should add that the supply container will always be topped off with more media so that the mass (pressure) of liquid or powder is not changing with time.

  • $\begingroup$ Check old issues of Home Power magazine which did an article on a solar panel tracking system based on filling a bucket with water. a bit of re-design and you will have a clock. $\endgroup$
    – Solar Mike
    Commented Jun 15, 2022 at 12:18
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for your response, I already have a mechanism for the clock I like using a seesaw bucket which flip flops as the buckets fill and shift the center of mass. I am more concerned with the changing discharge coefficient at different atmospheric conditions. $\endgroup$
    – Austin Fox
    Commented Jun 15, 2022 at 12:22


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