I have placed two microphones placed within 1 or 2 cm distance. They can receive and record sounds around them. I want to detect the distance of the sound source (specially human voice) and the direction of the sound source using those microphones. Is it feasible when the distance of the sound source is short (i.e. around 10 cm).
A sound source and listening device can only provide direction.
Multiple microphones is how passive submarine sonar works. This will give direction only. Note that microphones in a line can only provide the two mirror image directions, you can't discriminate from off-axis sounds from either side.
To get distance, you need an active sound emitter, and measure the time for the reflection to return. This is how radar works as well, but with radio waves.