In considering something like a jet engine, the thermodynamic analysis can be very mathematical and quite simple (e.g. one-dimensional flow). It's quite general and takes exactly the same mathematical form for many different engines. In contrast, there's the level of analysis at which a compressor map is made, which is kind of empirical. It comes from experiments or numerical simulations, and the resulting map is specific to a particular piece of equipment. We could also mention stress analysis of components, carried out mathematically and/or with finite element models.
My question is, how do engineers think of these "levels of analysis" fitting together? It's not obviously a case of a hierarchy of detail. Different analyses cover different aspects/dimensions of the machine. There's no single analysis which incorporates all the aspects (although I guess there could be). What's the intellectual framework for this, or the mental model of how the analyses fit together? (I'm wondering whether this is actually more of a philosophy of science question.)