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from what I understand ( please correct me if I'm wrong) the turbine is connected to a magnetic thats being surrounded by copper wire and when the tge wire go from being affected by the magnet to being free, it creates electricity

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Once you have the mechanical energy from the turbine it must be converted into electrical energy.

The basis for this conversion is Faraday's Law of Induction which simple states that a moving magnetic field will induce a current in a conductor.

This diagram shows the process:

Faraday's Law from https://www.livescience.com/53509-faradays-law-induction.html

From: Faraday's Law

This is done in a electrical generator that has a shaft with either permanent magnets or electro-magnets mounted on it surrounded by coils of wire. As the shaft turns the magnetic fields pass through the wire coils and you have electricity.

The above diagram shows linear motion but rotary motion works too and looks like this:

Rotary generator from https://www.toppr.com/guides/physics/electromagnetic-induction/ac-generator/

From: Rotary Generator

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  • $\begingroup$ Of course real generators are more complicated than this simple demonstration. $\endgroup$
    – user253751
    Sep 26 at 11:09
  • $\begingroup$ More complicate but same principle. $\endgroup$ Sep 27 at 0:57
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This is an interesting subject, and there are a lot of things that can be said. Like other said the principle is based on the Faraday's work. Essentially the movement of a conductor in a magnetic field develops an electromotive force (EMF) in it (Faraday's Law). This EMF induces current.

There are several electric generators.

  1. DC electrical generators: Although the Faraday early alternator generated DC, initially there was a lot of interest for the dynamo development because early machines required DC current. Those early incarnations, used mainly permanent magnets and produced AC current, which through the use of a commutator was (partially) rectified.

  2. Alternators (Synchronous generators): These substituted the dynamos, and they are connected directly to the grid of a system. Typically, the rotor (usually a rotating magnet) turns within stator (usually a stationary set of conductors wound in coils on an iron core). The field cuts across the conductors, generating an induced EMF (electromotive force), as the mechanical input causes the rotor to turn.

  3. Self excitation: Increasing the size of AC generators with permanent magnets hits a ceiling because of the maximum magnetic field that can be achieved. That is the reason, that self-excitation machines are used for very large installations. Essentially, the permanent magnets are replaced by coils, which are powered by a small portion of the energy which is generated (in some very large installations a smaller generator supplies energy to the coils).

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  • $\begingroup$ Gas turbines turn a speed reducer that turns the generator. Steam turbines , generally used by power plants, turn slower and are connected directly to the generator. $\endgroup$ Sep 26 at 15:12

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