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There are two examples I have taken in diagram. In the first one , we have a cation and anion. They form an ionic bond due to which the cation has no electrons and the anion has 2 electrons. There are two attraction forces present on anion :

1)Effective nuclear charge from the cation on the anion’s valence electrons.

  1. Also , an effective nuclear charge from the propane in anion itself on the electrons of anion.

From the point 1 , we can note that due to this extra force. The shape of the anion changes into a pyramidal shape. This is what I have understood about polarization. I see this is only applicable for H and electronegative element .

In the 2nd example , we have NaCl or you can take any other compound as well. This polarization will not be valid due to the valence electrons present on the cation.

Therefore , is my understanding correct and is it true that it is only applicable for H and electronegative element?

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    $\begingroup$ I don't know why this is tagged mechanical/civil engineering or applied mechanics. This question would probably be better off asked at Chemistry. $\endgroup$
    – Chuck
    Jul 2 '21 at 15:47