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Some cameras have a pattern similar to stairs close to their lens. For example:

enter image description here

Such a system absorbs and/or reflects undesired light rays in order to improve image quality.

How would you call such a mechanical part?

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    $\begingroup$ It's basically a lens hood, but I don't know if wide-angle, integral, stepped hoods have a special name. $\endgroup$ – Phil Sweet Apr 22 at 10:35
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If I'm not mistaken, this system is a variation of what's called an optical baffle. More details on Wikipedia !

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As said in comments it's a lens hood. By keeping the lens in a cave a strong light- say the sun or strong lamps - has less possibilities to make lens flares due the unwanted reflections inside the lens. The flares appear if there's strong direct light shining to the lens.

The embanked form is a way to make the hood itself less capable to shine too much towards the lens if it gets say direct sunlight.

BTW without knowing the camera properties and used materials it's impossible to say how much of the shown structure is there only to create an illusion of advanced design.

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