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How does negative voltage damage the pins of my PIC16877A microcontroller. Could anyone explain to me? Thanks

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Datasheet says you can't put a voltage lower than VSS on any pin: Section 17 of PIC16f87x datasheet

This is because there are reverse biased diodes between the most pins and VDD and VSS. If you apply a negative voltage the diode to VSS becomes forward biased and current will flow. The forward drop of the diode before it turns on to conduct is about -0.6 V. Applying a voltage more negative the diode will conduct and the internal structure the chip is very like a SCR and "latch up" - a low resistance path appears between VDD and VSS. Something will heat up and the chip will be damaged.

Section 12.9 of PIC16f87x datasheet

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