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In a brush-less DC (BLDC) motor the commonly used speed is sensed using the feedback from Hall effect sensors and the back or counter EMF. The linked article on Wikipedia also mentions that 'Other sensorless controllers are capable of measuring winding saturation caused by the position of the magnets to infer the rotor position.'.

Are these the only possible sensors used to sense the speed? Additionally, how can we estimate the load torque in a practical and commercially available BLDC motor?

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    $\begingroup$ Are you wanting speed or load? They are different. $\endgroup$ – Solar Mike Mar 18 at 14:23
  • $\begingroup$ @SolarMike thanks for bringing the lack of clarity in the text of the question to my attention. I have edited the question to reflect the intent accurately. I would like to know sensors other than Hall and back EMF for speed estimation as well as possibly those for load torque estimation. $\endgroup$ – kbakshi314 Mar 18 at 14:26
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    $\begingroup$ I believe current sensors might work too. $\endgroup$ – user8055 Mar 18 at 15:13
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    $\begingroup$ Motor control tends to get covered at the EE StackExchange. Here is a search for BLDC speed control from there $\endgroup$ – Pete W Mar 18 at 18:22

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