How do you think the steel in these images was made?

Example1 (https://i.stack.imgur.com/oZLRM.jpg)

Example 2 (https://i.stack.imgur.com/jrDE7.jpg)

Example 3 (https://i.stack.imgur.com/fpl2d.jpg)

Example 4 (https://i.stack.imgur.com/U6uhE.jpg)

Example 5 (https://i.stack.imgur.com/cBjaj.jpg)

Example 6 (https://i.stack.imgur.com/P1TcC.jpg)

Example 7 (https://i.stack.imgur.com/x619Q.jpg)

Example 8 (https://i.stack.imgur.com/FUqWa.jpg)

phosphoric iron microstructure: enter image description here


1 Answer 1


Steels are usually considered "as cast" or wrought. The microphotograph is overetched and either high magnification or coarse grained , likely had a heat-treatment. Cast or wrought would be identified by inclusion morphology , best seen in unetched condition. Modern steels are very clean so minimum inclusions to look for. Modern steels are also continuously cast and some mills have the ability to reduce the amount of inclusions in wrought material even more. Forged or rolled could be determined with low ,or no, magnification of a large etched crossection to look at grain flow . And the shape of the product would be a big clue. "How it is made" could also be asking if it is all scrap or virgin steel from ore. Chemistry would be most helpful for this.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks.I think this is the microstructure of forged steel. Right? $\endgroup$ Feb 1, 2021 at 14:41
  • $\begingroup$ No way to tell with this etch and mag. It reminds me of oxy-cutting swarf with the large black apparent porosities. $\endgroup$ Feb 1, 2021 at 15:37
  • $\begingroup$ Perhaps the magnification is small? I replaced it with another sample with a higher magnification. Can you see something now? $\endgroup$ Feb 1, 2021 at 18:11
  • $\begingroup$ I would remove the etch and look at much lower magnification . This looks like 500 X +, , i would start at 25 X. $\endgroup$ Feb 1, 2021 at 19:41
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, I have several with 25 X magnification. For example, this one. $\endgroup$ Feb 1, 2021 at 22:28

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