This phenomenon is known as cavitation for pumping liquids - i.e. for anything that can change phase. If you are pumping gas, then the scenario really does come from choked flow.
Let's say you've got a compressor and you're running it as a vacuum pump to evacuate a tank - at some point the tank's pressure on the inside is so low, you can't pump any more air out. This shows your question is a valid question. It's a slightly different scenario, but it's easier to analyze using a real compressor at it's maximum suction pressure then your mythical high power compressor.
Using a piston-style compressor analogy, the maximum that the pump could remove would be based upon the max lift of the valve. If you can't compress the gas to the point that the outlet valve will open to prevent air from coming back into the tank, then that's it - that's your maximum suction. No matter how much power you put on it, you can't have more suction.
Other compressor designs work on the different principles, but the analogy holds - rotary turbines ultimately start with a gas at a pressure, then compress it with stators, rotate it again, compress it, etc. in cycles. However, at the back end of the compressor is air (or in the case of a jet engine, combusted fuel) pushing back. So long as the compression from that last stage of the turbine can push back on the air coming in (and all the way down the line), the compressor will work. Beyond that point it will not.