# What are typical forging loads?

What are typical forging loads for various metals and configurations? I know that the typical test for a metal is to upset a 0.750" high x 0.500" diameter cylinder to a height of 0.5", but could not find any actual tables of what kind of load it takes to do this for various metals. In theory, I guess it would actually be plot of load x temperature for each metal.

Forging load is given below. Where $\mu$ is coefficient of friction, $\sigma_{f}$ is Flow Stress, h and d are height and diameter of the part at that deformation. $$F= \sigma_{f}\frac{\pi}{4}d^{2}\left ( 1+\frac{\mu d}{3h} \right )$$
Also you can calculate forging force for non homogeneous deformation is given below. Where $d_{0}$ and $h_{0}$ are initial diameter and height and $A_{f}$ is final area and $\sigma_{u}$ is ultimate tensile stress. $$F=\sigma_{u}\left ( 1+\frac{\mu d_{0}}{3h_{0}} \right)A_{f}$$