What are typical forging loads for various metals and configurations? I know that the typical test for a metal is to upset a 0.750" high x 0.500" diameter cylinder to a height of 0.5", but could not find any actual tables of what kind of load it takes to do this for various metals. In theory, I guess it would actually be plot of load x temperature for each metal.

I'm mainly concerned with upsetting loads and backward extrusion loads.


1 Answer 1


Short answer

Forging loads are dependent on total deformation and die type in addition to temperature. So that kind of table is not possible. But you can check flow stress curves such as given below from Ohio State for 403 steel.

Flow stress vs temperature and strain

Long answer

It's not very easy to give forging loads because they are not linear. Forging loads change with strain. Below are two formulas to calculate forging loads. They are both for open forges, i.e. material flow isn't restricted, if you have a closed die things get fairly complicated.

Forging load is given below. Where $\mu$ is coefficient of friction, $\sigma_{f}$ is Flow Stress, h and d are height and diameter of the part at that deformation. $$F= \sigma_{f}\frac{\pi}{4}d^{2}\left ( 1+\frac{\mu d}{3h} \right )$$

Also you can calculate forging force for non homogeneous deformation is given below. Where $d_{0}$ and $h_{0}$ are initial diameter and height and $A_{f}$ is final area and $\sigma_{u}$ is ultimate tensile stress. $$F=\sigma_{u}\left ( 1+\frac{\mu d_{0}}{3h_{0}} \right)A_{f}$$


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