If I understand correctly, one of the star's teeth is bent into one of 4 nut's slots to secure the nut. What happens if none of the teeth align with the slots? Do you unscrew the nut a bit? Or it is somehow mathematically made that there will always be one slot that aligns properly?
See https://www.skf.com/us/products/bearings-units-housings/bearing-accessories/lock-nuts/requiring-keyway/installation-removal/index.html for installation instructions.
As you noted, the spacing can be set so that things are always pretty close. There are 19 tabs on the washer and four slots on the nut. The slot in the tread shown in figure 3 is wide enough to allow the washer to rotate slightly to relative to the bearing race, and this means the washer can always have one tab bent over.
A Starlock washer is a different item entirely - the teeth are on the inside and serve to limit axial movement of the washer in one direction, when placed over a circular shaft.