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I wonder whats the usage of orifice/orifice plate in Water Jet Cutting Machines. To increase pressure(due to a smaller diameter with respect to the entrance cross-sectional area) or to convert to higher velocity water or both?

thanks!

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  • $\begingroup$ What is the governing formula for an orifice? What about the vena contracta? $\endgroup$
    – Solar Mike
    Dec 7 '19 at 17:29
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The use of the orifice plate is to optimize the jet diameter and adapt it to the possible abrasive material or the job detailing finesse requirements.

The orifice which is normally of Tungsten carbide and in the industry sometimes called jewel does not control the pressure. pressure and velocity are controlled by powerful pumps.

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Uses a high velocity stream of Ultra High Pressure Water 30,000–90,000 psi (210–620 MPa) which is produced by a high pressure pump with possible abrasive particles suspended in the stream.

  • Quote from Wikipedia.

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diagram of water jet cutter, Wikipedia

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using the information in the water jet abrasive system dipicted, the system works as follows:

The size of the water jet nozzle (no. 2) actually determines the pressure the pump will produce at a particular flow rate. Depending on pump type, speed can be controlled to control pressure or a bypass valve in line prior to nozzle system to divert some flow to control pressure.

The orifice size of the abrasive nozzle or mixing tube is based on amount of and size of abrasive used for the size cut desired.

The pure water jets out of nozzle no. 2 and into the abrasive nozzle. As it does so, a vacuum is created in the mixing chamber of the nozzle. As a result of the vacuum, abrasive is sucked into the mixing chamber and the water velocity sucks it into the abrasive nozzle and impinges it on the surface to be cut.

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