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With the huge metal shredders that can shred an entire car or a bus, they can shred parts like the axle and engine which are large solid chunks of metal, just like the massive spinning shredder blades.

So why does the car get shredded and not the shredder? Are the blades made from harder/stronger metal, or is there something about their shape that makes them stronger (they just look like large plates with notches on)?

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The blades are indeed made of, or tipped with a hard steel/carbide, but they also don't contact each other. The shredding action is created by the shear forces of the two corotating drums of "teeth", and this non-contact between the hard points, high shear strength, and gearing advantages allow it to power through whatever you throw at it.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVkTj9VrH4o

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