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The Wikipedia article for ESC describes the process as using hydraulic anti-lock brakes.

However, is it possible for electromagnetic braking to be used instead, with an electic motor/generator in each wheel?

I would expect this configuration to reduce the components needed for ESC (especially for electic cars), as well as enabling ESC for smaller vehicles (where I've heard it's hard to fit), while lowering response time.

So can ESC be implemented using electromagnetic braking from motors? If not, why? If it can, than why isn't it commonly used? Has it ever been attempted?

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For "classic" cars ice and hydraulic brakes then you would need to add extra electro-magnetic brakes & control system adding to weight, complexity and of course cost. So, possible but not likely.

For hybrid cars that have motors on each wheel then the motor controllers and motors could be upgraded to suit, however there will probably need to be a separate braking system for reasons of safety ie legislation so using that for esc is more likely.

For full-electric, then the response as per hybrid seems relevant.

Why do you think esc is hard to fit on small cars? Most esc is a derivative of abs and is usually implemented in the ecu or with another small "black box" - not hard to fit... But most likely not fitted to small cars as they are built to a price-point so only the minimum is fitted. The up-market model may have it fitted.

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