# How do i find the effective length factor (k) for a column from this chart?

I need to find the effective length of a column (kl) from this chart which can be found in the "design of concrete structure" By Dr. Arthur Nilson.

the question states "if Psi top is 1.5 and the bottom joint is a firm (fixed) joint what is k? if the column is braced" what I don't know is if the joint is fixed should I take Psi as 0 or infinity? this is a diagram of the column

You should take $$\psi=0$$, typically for fixed braced concrete column, design aids set the bottom as zero flexibility.