What matters is the stability and longevity of the electrolyte system in the batteries. Even wet lead batts can be dump charged at a fantastic rate (c 100 or so) if their state of charge is low and they are manufactured to high tolerances. But the rate of charge acceptance that doesn't cause damage drops of sharply starting around 80% charge. From a design point of view, Charge acceptance is controlled by surface area of the elecrtolyte/anode/cathode interface. It is also limited by internal heat generation and heat dissipation. Most electric vehicles use fan-cooled batteries with sophisticate cooling. So the first item is physical design - surface area, heat dissipation, and eletrolyte stability enhancements such as gels and glass mats in the case of lead batts.
The second item is the controller or BMS. A sophisticated BMS will monitor each cell individually and regulate the charge rate of each individually. This can be several hundred cells in an electric car. This greatly enhances the overall battery lifespan when pushing it through hard charge/discharge cycles.
The third item is the choice of battery chemistry. There are dozens in production, and hundreds that have been tried. Some are just better at taking a high charge rate or work better in the configurations used in high charge rate batteries. Lion is well known for taking a high charge rate up to 99% of fully charged.
I'd also like to comment of the regenerative braking ability of cars. Most can't and don't need to regenerate a very large proportion of their capacity. The average stop will store about 1/2 mile's worth of cruise power. Some cars (and trains) use a special section of the battery just to handle small amounts of high rate regeneration. These supercapacitors then bleed the power into the rest of the battery at a slower rate. These tend to be found in lead-acid traction batteries, but are being researched for other chemistries as well.