13
$\begingroup$

Surge protectors are banned on cruise ships, and so are confiscated during boarding. Extension cords and cube taps etc. are discouraged, but not banned.

I'm asking specifically about surge protector incompatibility, and would like an answer that includes the technical details of the ship's cabin power supply.


I've asked in various places (not StackExchange) and have never been able to get a technical answer as to how a surge protector can cause damage.

Most responses are along the lines of "they cause fires", "fire is really bad on a ship", and "they ban all extension cords", so please don't give a similar answer.

To discourage "they ban all devices" responses, please look at this ad from Amazon and note the "Non Surge Protection & Ship Approved":

enter image description here


(Note that I wrote this last night before the answer from @StainlessSteelRat)

Learning that ships use an isolated-neutral system was a great help.

Here is a summary (many details omitted) of where I am so far. In particular, I run into what seems like dead ends (in bold) where the bad effects aren't nearly as bad as they at first sound.


Wiring Systems:

  • Normal house wiring (North American standards) is asymmetric, having one line at 120V, and the other shorted to ground at the main breaker panel. The neutral side (larger slot in outlet) is, in theory, safe to insert a fork without shock. The live side is, in practice, dangerous to insert a fork.

  • Ship wiring is symmetric, having two lines, each at 60V and 180 degrees out of phase. Both sides in theory pass the fork test (similar to birds safely sitting on a distribution wire).

Surge Protection:

  • With normal house wiring, when a surge protector notices a voltage spike between ground and the live wire, it diverts the excess current.

  • a surge protector has a continuous but small current (for the detection), and occasionally a brief but large current (when clamping).

Surge Protectors on Isolated-neutral systems:

  • The connection between one of the live wires and ground causes the system to behave like a grounded system. The current is normally small, but with many cabins on the same circuit, it might become significant. This makes the system more dangerous to users, but no more dangerous than home wiring.

  • The grounding occurs on the side of the circuit that connects to the live socket. Devices that rely on the difference between the two sides will be compromised. For instance, the on/off switch is normally on the live side, but would now be on the neutral side, leaving voltage on the device (e.g. even when switched off, the threaded part of a light-bulb socket would be live). This makes the system more dangerous to users, but no more dangerous than home wiring that has live and neutral reversed.

    • There will be multiple connections to ground in the circuit, which can create ground-loop currents. This can be annoying (e.g. hum in sound systems), but doesn't create any danger.

Speculation:

  • If the two wires aren't different colours, or if the installer knows that it doesn't make any difference, one line could end up connected to the neutral outlet in one cabin and to the live outlet in another. That could increase the continuous current leakage through ground. In the case of an actual spike, both sides would be briefly clamped to ground creating a large current and possibly tripping the circuit breaker. This would be annoying, but not dangerous.

  • I'm sure that the ship's electrical system has devices to monitor and regulate the power supply. The current leak to ground caused by surge protectors might cause this mechanism to get false readings. This could be dangerous to users.

  • There is an effect on metals known as stray current corrosion. Even without any added electricity, random currents occur in metals, and, particularly in the presence of salt, will cause the metal to corrode at points that act as anodes. Many marine vessels have magnesium-anode devices attached to their hulls to mitigate this effect. I imagine this is the reason that ships use isolated-neutral wiring, to avoid introducing any electrical currents into their hulls. This isn't immediately dangerous, but would be immensely expensive in the long run.

$\endgroup$
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ Ships use an insulated/isolated neutral electrical distribution system. Surge suppressors are trying to dump to ground . "Floating" electrical distribution can tolerate a single accidental earthing and no current will flow and no protections will blow. It takes two earthings to create the possibility for an over current fault. Each surge protector represents one such earthing path depending on the design of the unit. Surge protectors engage at a variety of voltages from 330 to 600 or so. Thus they would be fighting each other when the neutral is not massively bolted to ground. $\endgroup$ – Phil Sweet Mar 30 at 22:16
  • $\begingroup$ Some units have a high leakage current to ground. Particularly old ones. This interferes with the calibrated resistance device connecting the generator "neutral" to the ship grounding bus. The idea is to let the system float enough to handle a ground fault, but not float too much. $\endgroup$ – Phil Sweet Mar 30 at 23:21
  • $\begingroup$ @PhilSweet You should put that as an answer - and for info trucks with IER (insulated Earth Return) can have similar issues... $\endgroup$ – Solar Mike Mar 31 at 2:24
  • $\begingroup$ My comment was somewhat speculative. I have some knowledge of small boat electrical systems and their quirks, but not cruise ships. And I'm not an EE. I'll wait for a EE to explain the risks and concerns of the cruise ship people. $\endgroup$ – Phil Sweet Mar 31 at 12:26
10
$\begingroup$

From USCG Surge Protective Devices Onboard Vessels

A marine casualty investigation of two separate stateroom fires onboard a U.S. Flag Container ship revealed that the sources of the fires were attributed to the use of SPDs plugged into a lighting circuit. It was discovered that a ground had developed on another circuit that was connected to the same distribution panel providing power to the staterooms. This ground created an imbalance of voltage between the two power conductors supplying the SPDs which caused excessive currents, overheating, and subsequently, a fire. In this instance, even if the SPDs automatically tripped as designed, only one power conductor would have been secured while the other would continue to provide power, possibly shorting to the device’s ground wire and the structure of the vessel.

This safety alert only applies to vessels with alternating current power systems and may be most likely applicable to larger industrial and commercial vessels.

There are two main methods to supply power on ships. Insulated neutral and high impedance grounded neutral.

The insulated neutral system is used for low voltage ships (<1000V, typically 440V @ < 5MW). An insulated neutral is used to maintain the integrity of the power supply system.

On land, a grounded neutral is used. Any ground fault (hard or instantaneous) will cause breakers to trip or fuses to open. At worst, you are in the dark.

At sea, loss of power coming through narrows or channel may cause a dangerous situation. So an insulated neutral is used. A single ground fault (hard or instantaneous) will energize the hull, but much like birds sitting on uninsulated wires, the crew is not at an immediate risk, but the ground fault must be cleared because:

  • if a crew member makes contact with a second power line, they may be shocked.
  • and a second ground fault will interrupt the flow of power, possibly blacking out the ship.
  • and cathodic corrosion protection which protects the hull from rusting may be impacted.
  • and specifically may cause a fire because current greater than wires ampacity flows, I2R losses create heat, melt/burn insulation and causing a fire.

Circuit protection is designed to protect the insulation of wires to prevent fires.

enter image description here

So ground faults are dangerous and must be cleared as soon as possible. Circuits must have circuit protection (fuses or breakers) on all power lines because ground faults can develop on different power circuits.

Ground faults occur in ships in all spaces. In panels, in wiring, in devices, dirt collecting on surfaces, maintenance, failures, etc. All metal surfaces are bonded to the ship hull so that ground faults can be detected and cleared.

As ships get larger and more electrical power (>6MW) is required, the voltage must increases to decrease current to reduce copper usage. But higher voltage (>1000V) means higher short circuit currents. To limit short circuit current, 6.6kV systems use a high impedance or resistance (1.32kΩ) connected to ground (ship hull) to limit short circuit to 5A. The integrity of maintaining power if a single ground fault occurs is given up because it is to dangerous. Ground faults still occur and may black out the ship, but they must be detected and cleared. The dangers to crew or the ship power or cathodic corrosion protection are more complex.

For the question this means the ship hull is at 0V, but without hull return (no current is meant to flow in the hull).

From IEEE 45.1-2017 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations on Shipboard - Design.

enter image description here

Lower voltages (440V, 120V) are achieved by transformers. At 120V, the loads can be connected as 3-wire delta or 4-wire wye. Individual consumers get one phase and every third light or cabin is a different phase to keep the load balanced as much as possible.

At LV Bus, Neutral is solidly grounded to ship's hull at the transformer. If 4-wire wye (120V/208V) (neutral, 3 phases) is used, neutral is not grounded at receptacles, but power cables may have 3 prongs, Line, Neutral and Ground. So the Receptacle Ground is connected to the hull, so single ground faults in devices plugged in can be detected and cleared.

If 3-wire delta (120V) is used, there is no ground connection at the transformer, but Receptacle Ground is connected to the hull. This is probably where the problem occurs.

enter image description here

USCG show 60V at each terminal, so the system cannot be an insulated neutral. If LV bus is a delta, 60V at each terminal makes sense for a high impedance neutral with hull set at 0V.

120V power strips or surge protectors are designed to interrupt the live L, but there is no protection on neutral N.

Here lies the problem with inexpensive and older SPDs that only disconnect one “hot” terminal lead. The other “hot” terminal remains hot if the circuit breaker supplying the receptacle and SPD does not trip.

All circuits have breakers/fuses on all power lines. The problem occurs when the current is enough to activate surge protectors or power bars, but not enough to trigger built in circuit protection devices.

This fails for either wye or delta, but easier on delta. Delta has three phases, A, B & C. Each outlet gets 2 phases at a voltage of 120V. Cabin 1 has phase AB, 2 has BC, 3 has CA, repeat.

Cabin 1 overloads circuit, power strip breaker trips, but only interrupts A. B is live with 60V (possibly 69V) and because of the plugs ground plug, possibly connects B to ship hull.

Now any other ground fault anywhere on ship occurs and higher than designed currents flow, melting the wire insulation, and causing a fire.

Most likely, fault will occur in another cabin. Hair dryer in Cabin 2 trips power bar circuit breaker, interrupting phase B, but leaving phase C connected and possibly to Ground.

Phase B in Cabin 1 is connected to Phase C in Cabin 2. Short circuit with no circuit protection. Current greater than wires ampacity flows, I2R losses create heat, melt/burn insulation, creating a fire.

The outlet has dual pole breakers connected to a surge protector with a breaker on one side. The problem occurs when a surge occurs activating the surge protector but not meeting the outlet breakers, killing power to one half of the circuit with a potential 60V on the neutral of devices not designed to have a potential on the neutral, causing funky behavior in the wiring, device, surge protector to cause a fire in something probably a device connected to the surge protector.

Properly designed surge suppressors and power strips for ships must have dual pole breakers to disconnect both lines in event of a fault.

$\endgroup$
  • $\begingroup$ Your diagram shows 60V between ground and live. Does that mean that the ground is also isolated? If so, that means that the receptacle boxes must also be electrically isolated from the ship's physical structure. $\endgroup$ – Ray Butterworth Apr 1 at 14:25
  • $\begingroup$ Hopefully, that edit clarified your question. If not, ask a new one referencing this. Odds are someone will give you a better answer. $\endgroup$ – StainlessSteelRat Apr 1 at 19:03
  • $\begingroup$ It sounds like it's not so much the electronic surge protection itself that causes problems, but the built-in single-pole circuit breaker (and perhaps on/off switch) that is the culprit. $\endgroup$ – Ray Butterworth Apr 2 at 12:59
  • $\begingroup$ Surge protector trips circuit breaker, but yes, the problem lies with the single-pole CB. The use of shore based equipment in the marine environment causing the perfect storm. $\endgroup$ – StainlessSteelRat Apr 2 at 14:21

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.