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I would like to know if there is any theory behind designing the fixation for any part. To optimise the number of mounting holes and fasteners.

If so what is it called and where can I get it? Please help me.

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  • $\begingroup$ Fixings have to be sufficient to support the load that can conceivably be applied. Define the load and work from there. $\endgroup$ – Solar Mike Mar 4 '19 at 17:29
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It depends on the context. In structural engineering it means a connection that would be strong enough to develop a plastic hinge after the applied stresses surpass the design stresses.

In trusses and spaceframes a joint that is not pinned can be designed to be fixed up to a certain limit and then fail in a controlled, energy consuming, ductile way.

In Machinery a fixation usually means minimum strength that can resist all the forces, vibrations and torques, so it is important the node be bolted in a balanced and symmetrical way so that the center of rigidity of the part coincides with the axis and point of action of the load, it was designed to support.

There are rules on how to place the bolts and fasteners so that they contribute evenly to rigidity.

Here is AISC handbook of steel connections. Connections in steel structures

For lumber connections and fasteners Google Lumber or wood Type5 construction connectors and fasteners.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for your answer. Could you please suggest me some books or materials where I can study about these rules. $\endgroup$ – SS4 Mar 4 '19 at 23:49
  • $\begingroup$ @SS4, I modified my answer and added a link to AISC handbook for steel connections. It may seem too much but it is searchable. for other materials like lumber google for type 5 fasteners. $\endgroup$ – kamran Mar 5 '19 at 2:32

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