Here is a picture of a caliper that I found:
Calipers are such basic tools, but I have trouble understanding how they work. Here the main scale says "mm" at the end, and the Vernier scale says "0.05mm". I've read some explanations saying that if the Vernier constant is, say, 0.1, on the Vernier scale the "1" is at a distance of 9/10 from 0, so that if an object that is 0.1mm thick is measured, the "1" on the Vernier scale is moved 1/10 to the right and the "1" is aligned with the "1" on the main scale, and therefore the measurement is taken to be 0.1mm.
But here we have a Vernier scale with 0.05mm as the constant. Shouldn't this mean that the "1" of the Vernier scale should be 0.05mm short of the "1" on the main scale? But this is clearly not the case, the "1" spacing is clearly much larger than the "1" spacing on the main scale. So how does this caliper function?