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I see a lot of people asking why the Penny-farthing's front wheel is so big, and I think I've read enough materials to understand why (at least, at the most basic level). But even so, I feel that the rear wheel is too small — not just compared to the front one, but actually really small. Is there a specific reason why?

Also, why would this front-big-rear-small design not be used for other vehicles (for instance, I know some trucks have smaller front wheels and larger rear wheels, which is the exact opposite of penny farthings)?

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The rear wheel of the penny-farthing was only necessary to stop the seat rotating down to the ground.

Riding a monocyle is possible, but takes more skill and practice...

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As stated by @SolarMike, the rear wheel is only for stability. Because the front wheel is so large, the wheelbase (distance between points of contact on the ground) is large enough to provide ample front/back stability. Making the rear wheel larger, therefore would serve only to make the wheelbase unnecessarily long, making steering harder, and the bike physically longer; neither of these traits are desirable.

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The large front wheel is basically gearing. For every rotation of the pedals it moves about 15 feet.

Other vehicles don't do this has they have gears. Even a single speed bicycle has front and rear sprockets.

The rear is small as all it has to do is track.

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