The only one I know is the three point bending test for flexural strength.
What methods are there to test the flexural, tensile and compressive strength of concrete?
There are two methods to test flexural strength, three point and four point method.
and the corresponding moment line:
The maximum flexural stress happens to concentrate only in a point in three point test, if you are testing a non-homogeouse material as it's always so in reality, it's not handy at all, brittle materials in three point test are prone to premature fracture, however the stresses in four point test, extended across the beam (construction ...), it means in case of not-homogenous material béton armé (Eng. Reinforcement concrete), we can have more accurate map of material behaviour.
Usually these two methodes are considered as destructive test.
Another destructive test is splitting tensile strength test, here, you can find more about this test.
Pure axial (tensile, compression) tests (destructive tests) are quite popular. Universal testing machines or hydraulic presses are two familiar examples of instrument testing machines.
Besides hardness tests (semi-destructive) such as Brinell, Rockwel and Vickers are among the most popular tests these days in Europe.
$\begingroup$ You say "clearly, four point load is superior" - Please justify this statement. What if your deciding factor is cost/simplicity of setup? $\endgroup$ Sep 11, 2018 at 12:38
$\begingroup$ I added more details about flexural tests, i think i justified the statement, but when we decided to use which test is beyond the scope of this question as OP explicitly didn't asked. $\endgroup$– user14407Sep 11, 2018 at 13:41
1$\begingroup$ Much better! :) Upvoted $\endgroup$ Sep 11, 2018 at 16:10