What kind of positioning holding Hinges do Laptops & Notebook Computers use?
Is there a set of Mech/ Engineering terms for hinges similar to these and are there a category of them that I can study/ look into?
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They are commonly called Friction Hinges or torque hinges. They come in many configurations. They work by placing layer of a material between each side of the hinge along the pin axis. Also there's a design with a circumferential "damper" between the pin and the housing which will create the resistance to hold the hinge in position by friction
You may find that some use several layers to create a sandwich construction of the friction hinge. Found in compact designs.