So recently I went to Supercomputing 17 conference and picked this from a booth.
I would like to know as to what this device is? What's its name? Where to find its documentations?
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It looks like the devkit associated with the NodeMCU community. If you turn it around with the metal portion facing away from you it should say something like "devkit v1.x".
It's a developer board with an ESP8266 built into it. You can actually see the ESP8266 board sitting on top of the other board in the photo!
The ESP8266 specifies only the microcontroller (under the metallic cover) whereas the ESP-12N specifies the board on which the microcontroller is included (the board piggy backing on the bigger board).
The function of the underlying board is to simply provide you with a USB interface (UART - USB) and a voltage stabilization for convenience and standardization of the I/Os.
Check this wikipedia article for more information: NodeMCU