Suppose that I want to transport gases in a tube in only one direction. Can a liquid check valve be used in place of a gas check valve or is there a specific reason to use only a gas check valve?
No, liquid check valves function on density, viscosity or velocity or a combination and the mass is taken into account - gas check valves are designed to deal with a fluid 700 or more times less dense than a liquid.
Some gas check valves will function with a liquid - a check valve designed for blowing up party baloons for example will work with a liquid at low pressure but not high pressure.
Industrial valves are ( or were ) marked W O G . Meaning they are suitable for water, oil, and gas, ( not gasoline .). It is up to the user to determine if the valve will function in his particular application.