The modulus of elasticity is not going to significantly change for concrete in ambient temperatures but there are provisos.
The assumption is that you are talking about set concrete that has achieved 28 day strength. If you are talking about fluid concrete then that is down to the slump test and results are highly variable between strength types.
High strength concrete hardens rapidly and more so in higher temperatures. Obviously low temperatures will affect crystal lattice formation and ice would interfere with the rate of formation which is why ice is added to high strength concrete on sites in hot countries while being poured.
If you want to find out the effects on elastic range then an extensometer test would be the best way to find out the thermal effects. That said, concrete is not terribly good under tension so the results will likely be quite inconclusive. A Charpy test would demonstrate energy absorption and therefore the compressive variation but again the issues you face are that concrete is highly variable in composition and quality control is very limited, unlike steel which is manufactured to a much higher quality and far lower variability of structural properties during manufacture.
The thing about tons modulus and concrete is that 5% of specimens will achieve maximum strength, 10% expected to fail strength and the rest will be median strength within allowed safety limits and thus modulus of elasticity is accounted safe within legislated limits.
You may find more on the subject through Eurocode specifics in various text books on the subject.