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Is there any application or circuit design for RF radar systems to use directly the transmitter frequency for the receiver side.

From what I've seen, a mixer is always used to get the frequency difference to calculate the distance. Is that still applicable to use for Ground Penetrating Radar systems?

What determines the frequency required for scanning depth and size of the objects to be detected?

As far as I know, the use of higher frequency results in more finer details but it's difficult to penetrate deep into ground. I guess the maximum of 1GHz is enough to penetrate about 1 meter into the ground, of course depending on the conductivity of the soil. But I am not sure which specifications I need to process that much frequency. How much bandwidth do I need to use?

One said that you need to have a bigger bandwidth to have a higher resolution for depth information. But I am not sure if I use 1GHz do I need some sort of bandwidth about 2 GHz or sth. That much bandwidth supplied to ADCs are about 3000 USD and I am not sure if I am looking to correct direction.

Can you guide me a bit?

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