Mechanical engineer here, former US Navy nuke. The textbook definition of cavitation is, from my nuclear training:
"The formation and subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles as the suction pressure falls below and then rises above saturation pressure."
This definition is referring to the suction pressure as in a pump, but I would say more generally and apparently against most of the other posters here that cavitation refers more to the formation and subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles than it does about how those vapor bubbles occur.
Now, I understand that the cavitation effect generally happens (or is most discussed when it happens) in pumps and propellers, but it also happens in boiling water.
When you bring water to a boil, initially it is quiet and there are no bubbles. At some transition point (nucleate boiling), bubbles form on the bottom of the pan, break away, but collapse before they reach the surface. This kind of boiling (referred to as a simmer in culinary terms) can correctly be referred to as cavitation. This is also a very noisy phase in the boiling process - this is the "noisy" period in OP's video.
After cavitation comes (for cooking, at least) the final boiling phase, in which the bulk fluid boils and bubbles reach the surface of the water (departure from nucleate boiling). Despite boiling appearing to be more vigorous, this is actually much quieter because cavitation is no longer occurring.
Cavitation is the pinging sound a pot of water makes before a full boil. Once a full boil is achieved, steam bubbles reach the surface and the quality of the sound changes from a pinging to more of a gurgle.
All of that said, there has been a lot of talk on other posts about boiling being the application of heat and cavitation being about the reduction of pressure. Again, the reduction of pressure (below saturation pressure) is a cause of cavitation, but reducing pressure is not the definition of cavitation.
The term for creating vapor bubbles by reducing pressure is called flash distillation or flash evaporation. The term for creating vapor bubbles by increasing heat is called boiling.
The term cavitation refers to the formation and subsequent collapse of the vapor bubbles. Cavitation happens in pumps, in a pot of spaghetti water, in a submarine propeller, etc. It is not restricted to either mode of creation (pressure or heat). The video in OP's post shows cavitation during a boiling process.
I felt challenged by Air's comment to produce a source for the definition of cavitation that I provided here. The line I quoted above is as-memorized from about 15 years ago now. I have (on a bookshelf at home) a condensed technical handout of non-classified information we were given at the conclusion of the nuclear training courses for personal reference. In trying to find this manual online, I found a technical publications website that appears to reproduce some of the content we were taught in the nuclear power training program.
The first mechanical science volume has a section on cavitation that states,
If the pressure drop is large enough, or if the temperature is high enough, the pressure drop may be sufficient to cause the liquid to flash to vapor when the local pressure falls below the saturation pressure for the fluid being pumped. Any vapor bubbles formed by the pressure drop at the eye of the impeller are swept along the impeller vanes by the flow of the fluid. When the bubbles enter a region where local pressure is greater than saturation pressure farther out the impeller vane, the vapor bubbles abruptly collapse. This process of the formation and subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles in a pump is called cavitation.
(Emphasis added) The definition we were instructed to memorize (as I quoted at the top) is the condensed version of this statement for reproduction on exams.
Now, there is no source on this particular website, where the reference volumes are broken out by section, as to where this material originates, but at the top of the page is given the DOE document "DOE-HDBK-1018/1".
You can look that number up and find the document posted in full on the Department of Energy's website, where that passage can be found on page 12.
Further, regarding the comment about "industry not toeing the line of the US Navy," the copy hosted on the DOE website includes a foreword and an overview that state the material was prepared with input from the nuclear industry and is intended for use in training nuclear operators. So, maybe some industries do not use the definition of cavitation I have provided, but the nuclear industry does, and it seems like (from Bryon Wall's comment) that the chemical industry does as well.
fluid-mechanicscontext will be able to offer an engineering answer. $\endgroup$